Introduction to Transformer

Hello everyone, hope you are doing great. Today, we are going to provide the detailed discussion on Introduction to Transformer including its definition, types on the basis of varying output voltages, and the working principle. Moreover, the circuit diagram, schematic diagram and its real life applications will also be the part of this article. Transformer is basically an electric tool commonly used either to step up or step down the input voltage according to the requirements of the circuit and produces an output accordingly. Transformer can be used in multiples places e.g. offices, houses, industries etc.

Introduction to Transformer

Transformer is a device used to transfer electrical energy from one Alternating Current (AC) circuit to another circuit. It either increases or decreases the voltage at its output terminal. When a transformer increases the voltage at the output terminal in comparison to its input terminal, it is known as step up transformer. When it decreases the output voltage, it is known as step down transformer. Transformer can be used to reduce the voltage level in order to operate the low voltage equipment particularly in houses e.g. door bells and toys.

The transformer changes voltages through a process known as electromagnetic induction. In this technique flux lines build up and collapse with varying current passing through a primary coil. In this way, current is induced in another coil known as secondary coil. The secondary voltage can be calculated by the product of primary voltage and the turn ratio. Turn ratio is the ratio between number of turns in secondary coil to the number of turns in secondary coil. The turn ratio of a transformer can be represented by the formula shown below.

$$Turn Ratio = n = \frac{N_s}{N_p} = \frac{V_s}{V_p}$$

Basic Working Principle of Transformer

The transformer basically works on a simple principle known as Mutual Inductance. It is a phenomenon when AC passes through a coil, flux starts to change in that particular coil. Due to a continuous changing in flux, Electromotive Force (EMF) gets induced in the second coil which is not electrically connected to the first coil. Mutual induction is basically the ratio between an induced EMF in a coil to the rate of change of another coil in a way that both the coils are in flux linkage position. The mutual induction can be represented by the formula as shown below:

$$M=\frac{Induced_{emf}}{rate of change of current}$$

Schematic Diagram of Transformer

The schematic diagram of transformer like other electrical modules shows the basic symbol used particularly in theoretical knowledge for the better understanding of the reader or researcher. The schematic diagram of a transformer is shown in the figure below.

Basic Schematic Diagram of Transformer
Basic Schematic Diagram of Transformer

Basic Circuit Diagram of Transformer

The circuit diagram of electrical equipment helps in practical circuit designing for the desired purposes. It shows the various part of the equipment. The circuit diagram of the transformer is shown in the figure below.

Basic Circuit Diagram of Transformer
Basic Circuit Diagram of Transformer

Basic Types of Transformers

Basically, transformer is of two types as given below.

  • Step up transformer
  • Step down transformer

Step up transformers are usually used in the system where there is a need of long transmission voltages. They step up the input voltage and produce larger voltage at the output. Whereas, step down transformer are normally used in homes for small circuits that require low voltage supplies e.g. door bells and small toys.

Applications of Transformer

Like other electrical devices, transformers also have a lot of real life applications and they play a vital role in our daily life. Some of the major application are listed below.

These are common applications associated with the transformers. This is all from the tutorial Introduction to Transformers. I hope this tutorial will be a lot helpful for you guys. If you have any questions regarding this topic or anything else, you can ask in comments section or by contacting us directly. Our responsible team will surely respond you as quickly as possible. Take good care of you till my next tutorial.

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